Organic farming originates from a social and agronomical criticism of industrialism and capitalism which tend towards the complete disappearance of farming, and of agricultural chemistry which exploits land without properly maintaining its fertility. In general, organic farming emerged from a romantic political contestation of modernity in all its complexity. Nostalgia for country life, a search for harmony between farming and nature, a tendency towards biological mysticism, refusal of disillusion with the world, oriental influences, criticism of expansion of thirst for profit, all are recurrent themes, more or less underlined by the founders Howard, Müller, Rusch and Fukuoka. According to Steiner, organic farming plunges its roots in occultism. An epistemological and philosophical clarification on these various cultural issues became necessary. From an agronomical point of view, the criticism concerns themes of agricultural chemistry’s neglect for soil quality, importance of humus in the preservation of soil fertility and nutritional quality of agricultural produce. Apart from an economy based on farming, the alternatives proposed are marketing by producers and a return to organic fertilization techniques using compost and green manures. In addition, the idea of using nature as a model invites a comparison of farming with forestry, which today is compounded by agroforestry methods incorporating Ramial Chipped Wood.
Organic farming – History ; Agronomy – History ; Agricultural chemistry ; Agroforestry ; Compost ; Humus ; Romanticism – Political aspects ; Occultism ; Eastern Civilization ; Political Economy ; Philosophy.